Date of Defense


Date of Graduation



Educational Leadership, Research and Technology

First Advisor

Gina Garza-Kling

Second Advisor

Jane-Jane Lo

Third Advisor

Vicky Kudwa


Fluency in mathematics indicates the student has a variety of strategies to use when encountering an unfamiliar or unknown problem. In this study, students were assessed using a one-on-one interview assessment with the researcher. This type of assessment was used to reduce the stress and anxiety students feel during traditional math exams. The students then were grouped based on the correctness of their answers as well as the sophistication of their answers, meaning whether or not they used a strategy or counting to answer the problem. The students participated in thirty minute mini-lessons where they focused on the Making Ten strategy, in which the students decompose one number to add to another, making a “10,” and then solving a simpler math problem with the remaining value. Through a variety of methods, including: Ten Frames, Tens Go Fish, Quick Images, and thoughtful discussions about the composition and decomposition of numbers, the students in this study attained greater fluency with their basic addition facts. Teachers should think of a fluent student as having a “toolkit” to solve many different math problems. Measuring a students’ fluency does not include how fast a student can answer a problem or whether or not the student has all facts memorized.


Fourth advisor: Sharon Wade

Powerpoint accompanying

Access Setting

Honors Thesis-Open Access