Date of Defense


Date of Graduation



Teaching, Learning and Educational Studies

First Advisor

Karen Vocke

Second Advisor

Maria Perez-Stable

Third Advisor

Jeanne LaHaie


Language is the core of one’s identity, as it is essential in order to competently communicate and interact with other humans. Language preserves culture, and when educators are able to effectively teach English-as-a-Second-Language to students, it conveys respect for that culture. American society is highly culturally pluralistic which brings many languages into the classroom. Students bring their own experiences with them to school, including various native languages and a vast array of levels in English; some may not know a single word in English. Educators will encounter ESL students no matter what the location in the United States may be, whether it is a state near a Spanish speaking country or a region that has a high concentration of migrant workers, English-Language-Learners (ELLs) are extremely relevant. Teachers must embrace and learn from the various cultures that students come from. This is why it is imperative that educators are equipped with knowledge of how to effectively integrate teaching these students academic content and English. This handbook will give teachers resources and strategies that will help when there are ELLs in the classroom. Spanish is the most prevalent language in the U.S. besides English, so there is a great deal of information about Spanish and Hispanic cultures. If teachers are aware of the processes and potential problems that ELLs must undertake, they will better support their students. By having knowledge of various instructional strategies and resources for ESL students, teachers will become more culturally responsive. By taking advantage of the material presented, there will be a smoother transition for not only the teacher, butthe English-Language-Learner as well.

Access Setting

Honors Thesis-Open Access