Date of Defense


Date of Graduation



Family and Consumer Sciences

First Advisor

Scott Friesner

Second Advisor

Arezoo Rojhani


Bread is a staple product in the diet of most consumers in America. It is also one of the ”Salty Six”; the top six processed foods containing the most sodium chloride (NaCl) or table salt. Dietary reference intake (DRI) guidelines are established by The Food and Nutrition Board of the Institute of Medicine. Per these values, children ages 9-13 should consume no more than 2.2 g/day of sodium, and men and women ages 14-70 and older should consume no more than 2.3 g/day.Yet the average intake of sodium in America is much higher than the DRI: 3.4 g/day. One potential substitute for NaCl in the diet is potassium chloride (KCl). The DRI for potassium for healthy adults is 4,700 mg/day. However, most Americans do not get anywhere near the recommended amount, with men and women only getting 3,200 mg/day and 2,400 mg/day, respectively. This study examined sensory attributes, physical characteristics, and consumer acceptability of whole wheat bread made by substituting KCl in place of NaCl at 25% and 50% levels. A control whole wheat bread loaf made with incorporation of 100% of NaCl that the original recipe called for was prepared for comparison purposes. Objective tests were performed to evaluate samples for crust color, contour of surface, crumb color, cell size, thickness of cell walls, and volume. A nutrient analysis was also performed on each variation of bread. Sensory tests included a descriptive hedonic test for appearance, flavor, texture, moistness, and overall preference. Two paired comparison tests for bitterness and saltiness were also performed. Sensory panelists found the 50% KCl bread variation the most bitter, while the control was perceived to be the saltiest. Overall, the panelists preferred the 25% KCl substituted bread variation over both the 50% KCl variation and the control product. This data suggests that bread made with 25% substitution of KCl in place of NaCl could be marketed to consumers without any noticeable differences in appearance, flavor, texture, or moistness, thereby aiding in the reduction of sodium intake through bread consumption.

Access Setting

Honors Thesis-Open Access