Date of Defense


Date of Graduation



Biological Sciences

First Advisor

John Jellies

Second Advisor

Betsy Aller

Third Advisor

Andrew Kline


One of the most important homeostatic functions of the brain and body is sleep. This literary review analyzes the genes that are involved in sleep: Clock, Bmal1, Period, and Cryptochrome. It also explains the role of melatonin, GABA, orexin, and melanopsin during sleep regulation. The genes and neurotransmitters influence the suprachiasmatic nuclei and the circadian rhythm that our brain, and every cell of our bodies, have connections to. These connection help to ensure the homeostatic function of our bodies. The analysis of sleep-like states in other animals may show an evolutionary connection of sleep from non-mammals to mammals, but may also not be connected to evolution at all because of lack of research and wrong lens analyses. Medication and meditation can provide alternatives to induce sleep and in the future, after more research is conducted, there may be better ways to induce sleep.

Access Setting

Honors Thesis-Open Access