Date of Defense


Date of Graduation



Environmental Studies

First Advisor

Peter Voice

Second Advisor

William Harrison

Third Advisor

Stephen Kaczmarek


The Amherstburg Formation is a unit that stretches from Ontario to Michigan and was deposited during the Devonian Period. The goal of this project was to determine the depositional environment of the Amherstburg Formation. Facies associations were defined based on observations from three cores in northern and southeastern Michigan and later grouped into facies associations. The four facies associations were reef rubble, lagoonal, lagoonal and reef-rubble, and lagoonal and peritidal environments. These environments were deposited as laterally adjacent environments along a ramp shelf in a humid tropical climate. Sea level was relatively high during the deposition of the Amherstburg Formation. During this period, the Michigan Basin was covered by open marine waters where a diverse fauna flourished in reefs and adjacent lagoons. There was a regression following the deposition of the Amherstburg Formation, as the overlying Lucas Formation consists of shallow-water to emergent facies deposited in a semi-arid carbonate shelf.

Access Setting

Honors Thesis-Open Access

E. Gaines_Thesis Presentation.pdf (2967 kB)
Defense Presentation

Included in

Geology Commons