Date of Defense


Date of Graduation



Biological Sciences

First Advisor

Gellert Mezei

Second Advisor

David Huffman

Third Advisor

Ekkehard Sinn


Nanojars are large metal-organic complexes comprised of 26‒36 repeating units of [Cu(OH)(R-pz)] (R-pz = pyrazolate anion, where R is either H or a substituent), which strongly and selectively incarcerate highly hydrophilic anions. Nanojars are prepared by the reaction of a copper salt, pyrazole, a base and an anion source (which could be the copper salt itself or a different salt). Usually, a mixture of nanojars of different sizes is obtained: {anion[Cu(OH)(pz)]n} (n = 26‒36; anion = carbonate, sulfate, etc.). The value of n depends on the incarcerated anion and the substituents on the pyrazole moiety. It has become apparent that the outcome of nanojar-forming reactions is influenced by the ratio between the reaction ingredients shown above. For example, larger amounts of copper salt in the reaction mixture lead to larger amounts of nanojars with larger n (n = 31) and smaller amounts of nanojars with smaller n (n = 27 and 29). Therefore, it is possible that the relative amount of the other ingredients (such as pyrazole and base) also has an effect on the reaction outcome. The diameter of nanojars is about 2 nm, and they have the ability to bind to di-negative and tri-negative anions including PO4-3 , HPO4-2, and AsO4-3 [1].

Figure I. Different views of the crystal structure of nanojars.[2]

Access Setting

Honors Thesis-Open Access

Supplementary information.pdf (1325 kB)
Supplementary Information