Date of Defense


Date of Graduation



Interdisciplinary Health Programs

First Advisor

Daryl Lawson

Second Advisor

Kevin Lee

Third Advisor

Christina Woytal


Knee osteoarthritis (OA), TENS, non-pharmacological, adults


Knee osteoarthritis (OA) is diagnosed worldwide and affects nearly 250 million people (Wallace et al., 2017, pg. 1). Additionally, people who are 45 years and over are prone to this degrative disease (Wallace et al., 2017, pg. 1). Knee OA can be graded into five categories (0-4) levels associated with the Kellgren-Lawrence grading scales (Kellgren & Lawrence, 1957, pg. 494). Symptoms will develop overtime; thus, it is important to find non-pharmacological ways to help alleviate pain for individuals affected. A non-pharmacological modality of interest is the transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) units, which can be tailored to a patient’s specific needs to reduce acute/chronic pain (Vance et al., 2014, pg. 198). This paper examined results obtained from a study by Dr. Lawson at Western Michigan University. Results analyzed the use of TENS units during functional testing on knee grading levels 2A, 2B, and 3 (Lawson &Lee et al., 2020). The study showed promising evidence to finding low-cost modalities for people who are affected by this degrading disease.

Access Setting

Honors Thesis-Open Access

Thesis Presentation 2021_Beer_E.pdf (314 kB)
Defense Presentation