Date of Defense


Date of Graduation



Electrical and Computer Engineering

First Advisor

Massood Atashbar

Second Advisor

Pablo Gomez


As technology advances, extended space travel becomes closer to a reality than a dream. However, there are concerns over the effect space has on personal health. Constantly subjected to the conditions of confinement and other aspects of long-term space travel, each astronaut’s health is of paramount importance on any mission. Reproductive health is of particular interest when considering the viability of extended residency in space and can provide additional metrics on the health of the whole body.

A lightweight wearable sensing system could be used to detect hormone levels of astronauts as they are completing space missions. However, current modes of detecting hormones are expensive, time consuming, and very large. It is desired to fabricate a sensing and electronics system to detect the hormone estrogen that is lightweight, wearable, easy to fabricate, and cost effective.

It was found that a device utilizing the LMP91000, a low-power analog front end (AFE) Potentiostat paired with the ESP32 microprocessor and a screen printed sensor made from a silver/silver chloride counter electrode, silver reference electrode, and carbon/ordered mesoporous carbon/graphite working electrode can be used to make a sensor and device that can detect estadiol (E2) in 0.1 M phosphate buffer solutions in the range of 5 nM through 5 uM with the following relationship: with a slope error of and a value of .


This report was generated by a group of engineering seniors at WesternMichiganUniversity. It is primarily a record of a project conducted by these students as part of curriculum requirements for being awarded an engineering degree. WesternMichiganUniversitymakes no representation that the material contained in this report is error free or complete in all respects. Therefore,WesternMichiganUniversity, its faculty, its administration or the students make no recommendation for use of said material and take no responsibility for such usage. Thus persons or organizations who choose to use said material for such usage do so at their own risk.


Co-authored with Alex Whipple.

Access Setting

Honors Thesis-Restricted

Restricted to Campus until