Date of Defense


Date of Graduation



Physician Assistant

First Advisor

Jessica Cataldo

Second Advisor

Gary H. Bischof


The purpose of this literature review was to examine the effectiveness of treatment for individuals with anxiety and depression. Anxiety can be characterized by feelings of uneasiness, constant worry, or fear. This involves the activation of the autonomic nervous system in both the sympathetic and parasympathetic nerve branches that trigger the body's fight or flight response releasing stress hormones like cortisol and adrenaline. Depression is a mental health condition where an individual has persistent feelings of sadness, lack of motivation, hopelessness, or little interest in things that used to bring them joy. This literature review included credible information from 9 sources that concluded the best method of treatment is a combination of antidepressants and psychotherapy. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, also known as antidepressants, and psychotherapy are two commonly used treatments. Anxiety and depression symptoms improve with the use of these treatments individually, but the largest improvements were typically seen with a combination. Cognitive behavioral therapy is shown to help treat anxiety and depression more commonly in comparison to other forms of psychotherapy.

Access Setting

Honors Thesis-Restricted

Restricted to Campus until


Available for download on Friday, January 31, 2025