Date of Defense


Date of Graduation



Biological Sciences

First Advisor

Benjamin Koestler

Second Advisor

Carol Beaver

Third Advisor

Enish Pathak


The systems used by Escherichia coli to combat heightened levels of acidity within their environment are varied and complex. Four distinct systems used by E. coli to resist acid-induced stress were identified in 2004 by Foster (1), though six now are known today. These systems include the glucose-repressed, glutamate-dependent, arginine-dependent, lysine-dependent, ornithine-dependent, and serine-dependent acid resistance systems. Each system is also known by its corresponding abbreviation, AR1-AR6. What is known about each system varies due to identification date, complexity of the pathway, and amount of research completed. Within this paper, each system will be identified and the pathway defined, combining the published research from a variety of studies to create a comprehensive explanation of the six known acid resistance systems used by Escherichia coli to survive acid stress.

Access Setting

Honors Thesis-Open Access

Acid Attack Presentation.pdf (262 kB)
Defense Presentation