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Context: It has been theorized that aquatic balance training differs from land balance

training. Objective: To compare the effects of balance training in aquatic and

land environments. Design: Between-groups, repeated-measures design. Setting:

Biomechanics laboratory and pool. Participants: 24 healthy subjects randomly

assigned to aquatic (n = 8), land (n = 10), or control (n = 6) groups. Intervention:

Four weeks of balance training. Main Outcome Measures: Balance was measured

(pre, mid, post, follow-up). COP variables: radial area, y range, x range in single

leg (SL), tandem (T), single leg foam (SLF), and tandem form (TF) stance. Results:

A significant condition [1] time interaction for x range was found, with improvements

for SL, SLF, and TF. Radial area improved, with post-test 1.01 ± .23 cm2

and follow-up 1.06 ± .18 cm2 significantly lower than pretest 1.18 ± .23 cm2. Y

range significantly improved, with posttest (4.69 ± 1.02 cm2) lower than pretest

(5.89 ± 1.26 cm2). The foam conditions (SLF & TF) were significantly different

from non-foam conditions (SL & T) for all variables. Conclusions: Results of this

study show that balance training can effectively be performed in both land and

aquatic environments.

Published Citation

Roth, A., Miller, M., Ricard, M., Ritenour, D., & Chapman, B. (2006). Comparisons of static and dynamic balance following training in aquatic and land environments. Journal of Sport Rehabilitation, 15(4), 299-311.