Data on voluntary association participation among low-income members of major ethnic groups in the U.S. are reviewed. Low-income blacks are most likely to participate, followed by (2) whites and Mexican Americans and (3) Italian Americans and Puerto Ricans. Reasons for these ethnic differences are considered. More general factors affecting voluntary association patterns of low-income persons are also considered, and a means for increasing their voluntary association involvement is suggested.
Kutner, Nancy G.
"Low Income, Ethnicity, and Voluntary Association Involvement,"
The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare: Vol. 3
, Article 5.
Available at: https://scholarworks.wmich.edu/jssw/vol3/iss3/5