This article discusses the evolution of people-working professions through four synchronic eras: 1) the traditional era, 2) the voluntaristic era, 3) the professional era, and 4) the cybernetic era. People-working professions are conceptually distinguished from traditional (craft) professions which serve as the model for most sociological analyses of the professions. In addition to differences in the nature of the knowledge used and the context of the service rendered, a distinction is drawn regarding the focus of the work done. People-workers give service to other selves (egos) while craft professions work with objects or parts of the person. The historical evolution of people-workers, as well as current issues and future prospects for the people-working professions, are considered within the context of this separate identity.
Bennett, William S. Jr. and Hokenstad, Merl C. Jr.
"The Self and the Conduct of the People-Working Professions,"
The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare: Vol. 9
, Article 8.
Available at: https://scholarworks.wmich.edu/jssw/vol9/iss2/8