Date of Award


Degree Name

Master of Arts



First Advisor

Dr. Michael S. Nassaney

Second Advisor

Dr. Allen Zagarell

Third Advisor

Dr. Laura Spielvogel

Access Setting

Masters Thesis-Open Access


This thesis is outlining the introduction of municipal water and sewer by using archaeological evidence. First, I will lay out a theoretical framework in which this research will be conducted. It will outline what social control is, how others have examined it, and how is it used by elites to retain their position in society. Next, it will outline the health, social, political, and economic conditions that existed that would give rise to this transition from privies and cisterns to municipal water and sewer services. Then the James and Ellen White site (20CA118) will be used to give evidence of this transition and how it can be used to examine issues of social control in regards to health, hygiene, and proper behavior/etiquette in the archaeological record. And finally, it will conclude with a summation of the thesis and raise questions regarding social control that one could examine using the archaeological record.