Date of Award


Degree Name

Master of Science


Geological and Environmental Sciences



First Advisor

Dr. William A. Sauck

Second Advisor

Michelle Kominz

Third Advisor

Dr. Alan Kehew

Access Setting

Masters Thesis-Open Access


Lakeside, a former refinery site, in Kalamazoo, Michigan, is contaminated with hydrocarbon products. The contamination resulted from the refining and storage activities that took place at the site for over 50 years. The contamination is scattered in isolated pockets.

In an attempt to better define the contamination zones and therefore assist the remediation efforts, this study uses shallow geophysical methods including Electromagnetic induction using the EM 31 system, Magnetic, Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR), and Resistivity methods. The hand auger was used to further characterize some EM 31 anomalies. The EM 31 conductivity results show elevated values resulting from the biodegradation of hydrocarbons, clays or in some cases metal conductors. The method also revealed negative troughs in areas of steel conductors. The magnetic method was excellent in resolving vertical features. The GPR and resistivity methods revealed that the geology is composed of sand and gravel overlaying clay sediments. The GPR results also showed palaeo-channels and hummocky structures. The borehole sediments confirmed the presence of shallow (1ft depth) contaminants trapped in the upper vadose zone.