Date of Award


Degree Name

Master of Science


Geological and Environmental Sciences



First Advisor

Dr. Alan E. Kehew

Second Advisor

Dr. W. Thomas Straw

Third Advisor

Dr. Duane Hampton

Access Setting

Masters Thesis-Open Access


This study focused on thermal characteristics of the ground water and recharged surface water at The Upjohn Company's (now Pharmacia and Upjohn) Portage Road manufacturing facility. Major objectives were: (a) a compilation and graphical evaluation of historical lower aquifer ground water temperatures; (b) estimates of thermal energy introduced into the ground water system through recharge from Upjohn Pond, and predictions of future production well discharge temperatures; (c) an evaluation of hydraulic conductivity related to changes in water density and viscosity influenced by variable temperature; and (d) the stratigraphy beneath Upjohn Pond.

Records reveal increasing ground water temperatures through time in response to the recharge of non-contact cooling water at the site. Three methods were employed and estimated thermal input via Upjohn Pond to be 1.81E+10, 7.71E+10, and 1.38E+ 11 BTU's. Future discharge temperatures are predicted to be 53.2 by 1997. The temperature of the recharging pond water is a significant factor in the value of the hydraulic conductivity. The stratigraphy beneath the pond indicates the basal pond clay layer and the upper aquitard are separate lithologic units.

Included in

Geology Commons