Much of the literature on moral education is of a psychological nature with an emphasis on the individual's responsibility to the challenges of the social environment. The valuable is perceived in terms of (1) the development of the person as (2) a member of society. These publications fail to identify perspectives according to which living and growing become meaningful. Paul Kurtz recognizes this shortcoming.

Many people in post-modern society -young and old - lack direction in their lives, a meaning or purpose. Often it is the " liberated" individuals who seem most vulnerable to a confusion of values and to every temptation and desire. ("Why Moral Education?" in The Humanist, November/December, 1972, p. 5)