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Integrated approaches to reading instruction combine aspects of whole language and direct instruction methods to introduce children to literacy in the classroom. In essence, these approaches are based on the assumption that emerging literacy can be nurtured initially in a holistic and natural manner (see Gunderson & Shapiro, 1988) as a prelude to the introduction to commercial reading materials. It is further assumed that the basal reader may be used in innovative ways (Burns and others, 1988; Cooter and Reutzel, 1987; ReutzE> 1, 1986) to promote a variety of literacy experiences. While the notion of integrated approaches has been discussed for many years, there has been little research that observes and documents their existence in classrooms.

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