This simple statement alludes to the important relationship between speech and literacy that has come to intrigue and perplex many in recent years. Speech and literacy have been recognized as two complex processes that are conceptually and practically intertwined in the great tangle called "language" (Snow, 1983; Vellutino, 1977; Mattingly, 1972). Language, "a system of communication that employs spoken or written symbols" (Harris and Sipay, 1984, p. 247), is defined as a single phenomenon having receptive and expressive modes.
Levary, E. F. (1990). Reading Instruction and the Language-Impaired Child: Means To What End?. Reading Horizons, 30 (3). Retrieved from https://scholarworks.wmich.edu/reading_horizons/vol30/iss3/6