Ming China maintained relationships with neighboring peoples such as the Mongols by educating bureaucrats trained to translate many different foreign languages. While the reference works these men used were designed to facilitate their work, they also conveyed a specific vision of the past and a taxonomy of cultural differences that constitute valuable historical sources in their own right, illuminating the worldview of the Chinese-Mongolian frontier.
"Tilting toward the Light: Translating the Medieval World on the Ming-Mongolian Frontier,"
The Medieval Globe: Vol. 2
, Article 9.
Available at: https://scholarworks.wmich.edu/tmg/vol2/iss1/9