Medieval seals, traditionally considered from the perspective of their documentary function, may also be studied as archaeological artefacts. Pilgrim badges were seal-shaped, and seal matrices and seal impressions can be found on church bells, in altars, and in burial sites. The context in which matrices are excavated provides valuable information on the practices of sealing and on the values attached to seals. This article also reveals a hitherto undescribed late medieval practice whereby papal and Scandinavian royal correspondents exchanged seal matrices.
"Archaeology and Sigillography in Northern Europe,"
The Medieval Globe: Vol. 4:
1, Article 9.
Available at: https://scholarworks.wmich.edu/tmg/vol4/iss1/9