These three laisses, that is, decasyllabic verse-paragraphs of various lengths whose lines end with the same assonance, are from the thirteenth-century Franco-Italian version of The Song of Roland, known as the V4 manuscript of St. Mark's Church, Venice. They illustrate creative thirteenth-century innovations, in a slightly different language, added to the much better known twelfth-century Anglo-Norman French Chanson de Roland, known as the Oxford version.

“La Chanson de Roland”: The French Corpus, Vol. 1, Part 2, The Venice 4 Version, 2005, Brepols, 2005, pp. 97, 100-1, 246-7.



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