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A field study was performed at 40 uncontrolled midblock crosswalks and 26 signalized intersections on low-speed roadways selected from the areas surrounding three major urban college campuses across lower Michigan. An array of existing traffic control devices existed at the study sites, including various crosswalk marking strategies, along with additional treatments, such as pedestrian hybrid beacons (PHBs), rectangular rapid-flashing beacons (RRFBs) and single in-street R1-6 signs. The sites also collectively included a diverse set of roadway and traffic characteristics, including crossing widths, number of lanes, and median presence, along with vehicular, pedestrian, and bicyclist volumes. Three primary evaluations were performed for the midblock segments and signalized intersection study sites, including: driver yielding compliance, vehicle-pedestrian conflicts, and non-motorized traffic crash data. The yielding compliance study found that the type of crosswalk treatment has a strong influence over driver yielding compliance. While yielding compliance improves substantially when crosswalk markings are utilized, the highest compliance rates are achieved when an additional enhancement device (i.e., RRFB, PHB, or R1-6 sign), is also provided. To supplement small crash sample sizes at the study sites, Michigan statewide pedestrian and bicyclist crash data were collected and utilized to develop safety performance functions (SPFs) and other methods for predicting pedestrian and bicyclist crashes at road segments and intersections. Because pedestrian and bicyclist volumes were not available statewide, each model was developed for pedestrian and bicycle crashes based solely on vehicular AADT. In general, the models showed that pedestrian and bicycle crashes tend to increase with increasing traffic volumes. However, even in the highest volume cases, only a fraction of crashes involved a pedestrian or bicyclist. Pedestrian and bicycle crashes were further estimated based on the respective proportion of the Michigan specific SPF models for total crashes. The primary limitation towards prediction of pedestrian and bicycle crashes is the lack of a reliable exposure data to represent the amount of pedestrian or bicyclist activity on a given segment or intersection.

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TRCLC 14-06