Recent discussions of planned social change have organized interventive strategies into models which identify underlying philosophical assumptions, value orientations, and political perspectives. Two papers published in 1965 can be taken as the beginning of this model-building discussion: Richard Walton proposed a dichotomy between attitude change and power strategies, and Roland Warren outlined a continuum from collaborative through campaign to contest strategies. In the subsequent literature, three publications stand out as major formulations of models of planned social change. What is particularly striking is that each develops a trichotomous typology of change strategies. Jack Rothman (1968) formulates the Locality Development, Social Planning, and Social Action models; Robert Chin and Kenneth Benne (1969) formulate the Rational-Empirical, Normative/Re-Educative, and Power- Coercive models; and James Crowfoot and Mark Chesler (1974) formulate the Countercultural, Professional-Technical, and Political models
Walls, David S.
"Models of Poverty and Planned Change: A Framework for Synthesis,"
The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare: Vol. 5
, Article 3.
Available at: http://scholarworks.wmich.edu/jssw/vol5/iss3/3