Date of Award


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy


Teaching, Learning, and Leadership


The purpose of this study was to examine high school counselors' perceptions of female participation in nontraditional secondary Career and Technical Education (CTE) programs. The data for this study was collected from high school counselors in Michigan by sending them a survey containing 25 items. The first section of the survey covered the demographics of the participants. The second section consisted of eight belief statements about counseling femalestudents into nontraditional CTE programs. The third section of the survey had 12 belief statements about female participation in CTE nontraditional programs. The survey responses were based on five-point Likert scales. The belief statements were used to describe the perceptions of school counselors in Michigan high schools toward female participation in nontraditional CTE programs.

The latent dimensions of school counselors' perceptions were examined to determine the relative influence of their gender, age, level of education, years of employment in education, years of employment in school counseling, and the school size. The principal components analysis (PCA) with varimax rotation was used to find their perception dimensions. Multiple analysis of variance (M ANOVA) was used and Wilkes Lambda multivariate statistics found that gender, level of education, and the school size had significant impact on school counselor's perceptions toward female participation in non-traditional CTE programs.

Access Setting

Dissertation-Open Access