Date of Award


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy


Counselor Education and Counseling Psychology

First Advisor

Dr. Lonnie E. Duncan

Second Advisor

Dr. Evelyn Winfield-Thomas

Third Advisor

Dr. Joseph Morris


Friendship, black males


This study sought to examine potential influences of intimacy levels in the same-sex friendships of Black males. Attention was given to adherence to traditional masculine norms, age, socioeconomic status, religious support, and adult male presence as potential influences. One hundred and thirty-nine Black males completed a survey consisting of a demographic questionnaire, the index of Emotional Intimacy in Same-Sex Friendships (EISSF), the Religious Support Scale (RSS), the Barratt Simplified Measure of Social Status (BSMSS), and the Conformity to Masculine Norms Inventory (CMNI). This study found a minimal positive relationship between emotional intimacy and the hypothesized influences.

Access Setting

Dissertation-Open Access