Date of Award


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy



First Advisor

Dr. Morton O. Wagenfeld

Second Advisor

Dr. Subhash R. Sonnad

Third Advisor

Dr. Barbara A. Rider

Fourth Advisor

Dr. Timothy Diamond


Objectives. The relationship between social variables and performance of instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) was examined in participants three to nine months after they experienced a hip fracture. All participants were over the age of 60 and living in their own homes before and after their hip fractures.

Method. This study employed both qualitative and quantitative methods. There were 19 participants in the quantitative portion of the study that compared three subjectively rated questionnaires with an objectively rated IADL scale. The independent variable, subjective scales were: (1) Antonovsky’s “Orientation to Life” Scale, which measures the sense of coherence, (2) the Center for Epidemiology’s Scale of Depression, and (3) Pearlin’s Expressive Social Support Scale. The Assessment of Motor and Process Skills (AMPS) was the objective instrument that generated the dependent variable values. From the 19 participants in the quantitative study, a 12-member subset participated in the qualitative interviews. The qualitative analysis used a naturalistic inquiry approach to elicit the participants’ own ideas and thoughts about their experiences and the factors that they felt facilitated their return to their own homes and their ultimate recovery using a constant comparative data analysis.

Results. The social factors that were measured in the quantitative portion all emerged as major themes in the qualitative analysis. The other major factors identified as significant to their recovery were (a) being in one’s own home, (b) faith in God, (c) determination to get better, and d) the ability to participate in personally meaningful activities. The data analysis also validated Antonovsky’s concepts of generalized resistance resources and altering expectations/priorities in response to changes in abilities.

Conclusions. Social support, adequate resources, positive attitude, faith in God, participation in meaningful activities, and the ability to adjust to limitations were significant factors that influenced the participants’ recovery. Reproduced

Access Setting

Dissertation-Open Access