Date of Award


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy


Counselor Education and Counseling Psychology

First Advisor

Dr. Joseph R. Morris

Second Advisor

Dr. Robert L. Betz

Third Advisor

Dr. Earl M. Washington


The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between multicultural counseling competencies and attitudes toward African Americans among White female graduate students in counseling psychology. Participants were 67 White female students enrolled in either the master’s or doctoral level counseling psychology programs in a large Midwestern university. Subjects were administered four instruments. Participants’ self-perceived competencies in multicultural counseling were measured by the Multicultural Counseling Inventory (MCI, Sodowsky, Taffe, Gutkin, & Wise, 1994) and racial attitudes were measured by the Attitudes Toward Blacks Scale (ATB, Brigham, 1993). Demographic information as well as subjects’ level of participation in several activities linked to the development of multicultural counseling competencies were evaluated by the Personal Information Questionnaire. A measure of social desirability was included to control for the tendency to respond to self-report measures in socially acceptable ways.

Descriptive statistics involving respondent characteristics, level of participation in activities related to multicultural competence, and scores on the independent and dependent measures were presented. Completion of a multicultural counseling course and participation in at least one training experience with a racial/ ethnic minority faculty member were significantly related to favorable attitudes toward African Americans. Preliminary analyses for social desirability revealed significant results for the MCI relationship subscale and the MCI full scale which measures general multicultural counseling competence irrespective of unique subscales. Significant results were also found between the MCI full scale and attitudes toward African Americans. Due to the significant relationship found between the MCI full scale and social desirability, it is possible that the latter finding may have been influenced by social desirability in this particular sample.

Access Setting

Dissertation-Open Access