Date of Award


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy


Public Affairs and Administration

First Advisor

Dr. Peter Kobrak

Second Advisor

Dr. Susan Hannah

Third Advisor

Dr. Won Paik


The researcher's purpose in this study was to determine whether there was a relationship between environmental protection efforts (the dependent variable) and social, political. and economical forces (the independent variables), and to suggest strategies for the improvement and promotion of environmental protection efforts.

Data on 10 environment-related indicators (variables) were collected from 191 countries by using published statistical information on their social. political. economical, and environmental conditions. These indicators were analyzed to determine which indicators had the most powerful relationship to environmental protection efforts.

Descriptive statistics, bivariate regression analysis, bivariate correlation coefficient analysis, multiple regression analysis, multivariate correlation coefficient analysis. and analysis of variance (ANOV A) were used in analyzing the data. Three social force indicators-social change. level of education. population growth rate--were found to have a strong correlation with environmental protection efforts, as defined by carbon dioxide emission into the atmosphere. The relationship of the political force indicator--level of democracy-to environmental protection efforts also was strong. The effect of the economic force indicators-real gross domestic product per capita expressed in purchasing power parity, and income distribution to middle-class families-on environmental protection efforts also were strong.

The researcher concluded that public administrators must take the initiative in setting priorities on the use of given resources, in establishing economic development policies, in devising education and population programs, and in formulating and implementing efficient and effective environmental protection policies, in order to improve and promote national environmental protection efforts. Public administrators must be aware that a better environmental protection policy is more important than more environmental protection policies.

Access Setting

Dissertation-Open Access