Date of Award


Degree Name

Doctor of Education


Counselor Education and Counseling Psychology

First Advisor

Dr. Suzanne M. Hedstrom

Second Advisor

Dr. John Geisler

Third Advisor

Dr. Malcolm Robertson


Adventure programming has been utilized in the corporate world for training and team building. The focus of this study was to examine the effects of a 2-day corporate Adventure Training program on the group and individual functioning of middle-level managers in a Midwestern manufacturing company. The training utilized ropes course and group activities to develop teamwork and increase group functioning.

A work team consisting of 34 individuals, who were divided into three groups, participated in the training. A control group of 12 individuals was utilized for comparison. Variables of interest included group functioning and self-actualization. Group functioning was measured with the Work Environment Scale (WES) (Moos, 1994) and the Team Development Inventory (TDI) (Bronson, 1990). Self-actualization was measured with the Personal Orientation Inventory (POI) (Shostrom, 1974). A pretest-posttest design was utilized. The pretest occurred approximately 1 month prior to the training. The posttest took place approximately 2 months after the training.

Independent sample t tests were performed on the change scores between the control and experimental groups. Statistical significance was not reached at the .0 5 level on any of the measures. Based on this research, no claims that the treatment increased group functioning or self-actualization as measured by these instruments could be made.

Access Setting

Dissertation-Open Access

Included in

Counseling Commons