Date of Award


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy


Educational Leadership

First Advisor

Dr. Uldis Smidchens

Second Advisor

Dr. Charles Warfield

Third Advisor

Dr. David Ede

Fourth Advisor

Dr. Earl Halvas


Long deprived of consequential participation in socioeconomic exchanges outside the home, Filipino Muslim women are now breaking out of their traditional mold. Increasingly, they are acquiring higher education and are assuming vocational and leadership roles which, in years past, were inaccessible to them. Focused on Maranao Muslim women educational administrators, this survey sought to: (a) describe their salient characteristics, career development experiences, goals, and visions that distinguish them from their Muslim women subordinates; (b) describe factors influencing their career; (c) describe their leadership behaviors; and (d) deduce some policy and practical implications of the findings. Primary data on 75 variables were obtained from 46 randomly selected administrators, using a self-developed survey questionnaire and LBDQ-12, a published instrument. Comparative data were obtained from 166 Muslim women teachers and staff employees. Data about Islamic teachings concerning women were obtained from nine Maranao ulama. Statistical analyses included t-test for interval and ratio variables, and chi-square test for nominal variables. Of the 59 variables pertaining to the first objective, 28 distinguished the administrators from their subordinates. Regarding factors influencing their career, both groups emphasized the importance of family support and encouragement Government programs for cultural minority groups and personal characteristics and achievements likewise enhanced the educators'—especially the administrators'—career advancement. Moreover, they profess that family religious beliefs contributed to their career success although most ulama informants admitted to espousing contradictory teachings about women's education, employment, and leadership. Regarding leader behaviors, both groups agree in their evaluation of the administrators' performance in six LBDQ-12 subscales related to task and structure but differ in their rating of the leaders' personnel-related behaviors. Overall, the administrators feel that they still have to achieve excellence in leadership. Comparison of the educators' general pattern of outlooks and achievements with census data and other research findings, suggest that they are "paradigm pioneers" among their people. Therefore, the research findings have significant policy and program implications regarding: (1) the education, training, and employment of Filipino Muslim women; and (2) the roles of Muslim women educators in (a) the Filipino Muslim family, (b) the education of Muslim youth, (c) supporting the political autonomy of predominantly Muslim provinces, and (d) in fostering national unity.

Access Setting

Dissertation-Open Access