Date of Award


Degree Name

Doctor of Education


Counselor Education and Counseling Psychology

First Advisor

Dr. Peter Northouse

Second Advisor

Dr. Laura See

Third Advisor

Dr. Uldis Smidchens

Fourth Advisor

Dr. Thelma Urbick


Leadership is one of the most important, yet least understood, phenomena on earth. Many researchers have investigated leadership traits, activities, behaviors, and processes; yet, until B u m s (1978), few researchers distinguished between leadership that is "transactional" and leadership that is "transformational." Transformational leadership, says Bums, occurs "when one or more persons engage with others in such a way that leaders and followers raise one another to higher levels of motivation and morality" (p. 20) .

Since Bums, few studies of transformational leadership have examined leaders who appeal to higher values or leaders who challenge individuals, organizations, and societies to make principled decisions that raise consciousness, transcend opposing perspectives, or serve the common good. The purpose of this study is to investigate the nature of transformational leadership; to leam what drives, motivates, and concerns leaders who facilitate transformation; and to explain some factors that contribute to transformational leadership. This study hypothesizes that transformational leaders reflect a different world view (consciousness), different values, and different skills than other leaders. Using the Hall-Tonna Values Inventory (Hall, 1986), the study compares the levels of consciousness, values, and skills of transformational leaders and a comparison group.

The transformational leaders in this study reflected higher levels of consciousness, pursued different values, depended less on instrumental and interpersonal skills, and used more imaginal and systems skills than did the comparison leaders. The research demonstrates, therefore, that transformational leaders do reflect a different world view (consciousness), different values, and different skills than other leaders.

Access Setting

Dissertation-Open Access

Included in

Counseling Commons