Date of Award


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy



First Advisor

Dr. Richard W. Malott

Second Advisor

Dr. Dale Brethower

Third Advisor

Dr. Jack Michael

Fourth Advisor

Dr. Ben Wilson


The purpose of this study was twofold: (1) to test the effects of a job aid and feedback on learning to solve directional verbal-reasoning problems, and (2) to examine whether students’ skills transferred to similar problems following the removal of both the job aid and feedback. Some previous researchers who studied problem solving utilized the think-aloud technique and used solutions generated by expert problem solvers. The think-aloud technique, although perhaps a good one, is not practical in the classroom. In the main study, a job aid was incorporated within the problem so students would be able to use guidance toward solutions generated by an expert problem solver (i.e., the experimenter). Thirty-nine students participated in the present study. The students were randomly assigned to two groups, those who would receive the job aid and those who would not. Three tests were given to the students, a pretest, middle test, and posttest. Both groups received feedback during the middle test. Within and between group comparisons show no statistically significant differences. Therefore, there was no evidence that the job aid or feedback improved mastery for this kind of verbal-reasoning problem.

Access Setting

Dissertation-Open Access