Date of Award


Degree Name

Doctor of Education


Educational Leadership

First Advisor

Dr. Uldis Smidchens

Second Advisor

Dr. Charles C. Warfield

Third Advisor

Dr. Donald E. Thompson


Academic and personal successes and failures of young inner-city African- American males are invariably linked to the dynamics of family life, societal acceptance, economic and political opportunities and participation, and cultural expressions and peculiarities. Additionally, there may be other important factors, such as personal meanings, present and projected insecurities, differing values, hopes, and so forth, which may be highly contributive to determining the extent to which these youngsters perceive their chances of succeeding in the larger society. The implication here is that academic and other life successes are not only depended on individual responsibility and commitment, but also the supportive commitment and consistency of influential others, suggesting that there may be a connection between achievement, specifically academic, and perceived anticipation of self and other support.

Thus, the purpose of this study was to accomplish two major goals: (1) to determine the extent to which expectations of self-support and support from significant persons in and out of school differed between high and low achieving inner-city African-American 10th grade males, and (2) to describe the choices of various levels of selected characteristics (gender, race, age range, residence, and general personality) of in-school persons (principals, teachers, counselors, in-school friends, and staff) between high and low achieving inner-city African-American 10th grade males.

Subjects of the study were inner-city African-American 10th grade males, located in Southwest Michigan. Data were collected by administering the JVJ Student Expectations of Support Questionnaire, an instrument devised by the author. There were five hypotheses generated and tested with respect to the first major goal. The results were inconclusive as evidence for supporting differences in expectations of selfsupport, in-school and out-of-school support between high and low achieving innercity African-American 10th grade males. However, subsequent analyses indicated that the participants, at large, reported expectations of self-support to be rather high and reported in-school and out-of-school support to be from low to slightly low in regards to various situations associated with monitoring performance, achievement support, behavior management and self-direction. In regards to the second major goal of the study, both high and low achievers felt, generally, that their chances of receiving academic and personal support from in-school persons would be improved if such persons were mostly black, 31 to 40 years of age, no difference in gender and residence, and possessed, generally, an easy-going and relaxed type of personality. Extensive similar studies were recommended.

Access Setting

Dissertation-Open Access