Date of Award


Degree Name

Doctor of Education


Educational Leadership

First Advisor

Dr. Charles C. Warfield

Second Advisor

Dr. Rollin Douma

Third Advisor

Dr. Zoe Barley

Fourth Advisor

Dr. Eugene Thompson


Transformational leadership was introduced by James MacGregor Bums in 1978. This new paradigm described the leader and follower interaction as a mutually elevating process which Bernard Bass later described as performance beyond normal expectations. Transformational leadership theory has been expanded and extended by numerous authors and has been the focus of numerous research studies over the years.

Bass and his colleagues have been the most prolific researchers on the subject. The Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ) (Bass, 1985) was developed to measure the extent to which a leader demonstrates transformational and transactional leadership. The MLQ also provides a measure of the relationship between demonstrated leadership style and perceived leader effectiveness, follower satisfaction with the leader and the willingness of the follower to put forth extra effort for the leader.

This study was undertaken for the purpose of expanding the knowledge of transformational leadership by examining the existing epistemology. A variety of studies have been conducted beyond the Bass vein of research that provide additional insight to and understanding of the construct. The primary goal of the study was to analyze and synthesize the body of transformational leadership research into a cohesive whole.

The method employed was an integrative literature review. This procedure included an exhaustive literature search, a rigorous coding frame, precise meta-analytic techniques and data analysis. Qualitative research studies were utilized to enrich and expand upon the quantitative analysis.

The results of the meta-analysis indicated transformational leadership is practiced and preferred to a greater extent than transactional leadership. The meta-analysis indicated transformational leadership is associated with higher levels of perceived leader effectiveness, follower satisfaction with the leader and a greater willingness to put forth extra effort.

Access Setting

Dissertation-Open Access