Date of Award


Degree Name

Doctor of Education


Educational Leadership

First Advisor

Dr. Kenneth E. Dickie

Second Advisor

Dr. David Cowden

Third Advisor

Dr. Richard Munsterman


The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness of using one instructional method versus another in teaching multi view orthographic projection to college students possessing varied spatial visualization abilities. Two instructional methods were used: (1) the traditional hinged glass box method and (2) an unconventional method in which an object is placed in the middle of a bowl/ hemispheric shape where the front view of the object is seen by looking directly into the bowl. Other views are developed by sliding the object along the surface of the bowl until they are at right angle to the viewer's line of sight . The independent variable manipulated was the instructional method and the dependent variable was the spatial visualization development of students as demonstrated through their ability to mentally solve complex multiview orthographic projection problems.

The subjects were mostly freshmen and sophomores majoring in engineering technology enrolled in two intact basic engineering graphics classes at Ferris State University , Big Rapids, Michigan. The sample size was 92. The Differential Aptitude Test, Space Relations: Form T (DAT-SR-T, Bennett, Seashore, & Wesman, 1972) was administered to all subjects . Scores attained on the DAT-SR-T were used to divide the subjects into three groups and four visualization aptitude levels. Subjects were also given a 12-item pretest for multiview orthographic projection knowledge, taken from the Western Michigan University (Kalamazoo) Career Guidance Inventory Part 4 (Nowak, Walter, Vander Ark, & Henry, 1980).

Group 1 received 2 hours of instruction using glass box imagery, Group 2 received 2 hours of bowl imagery, and Group 3 received no formal orthographic instruction . Hypotheses were formulated and tested for significant differences between treatment and control groups for each aptitude level. The 12-item orthographic test was given to all subjects to record spatial visualization ability gains. The data collected were analyzed using the Statistical Package of Social Sciences (SPSS, Inc.,1990) software, Release 4 .1. No significant difference in spatial visualization gain scores was found between treatment groups or aptitude levels at the .05 level.

Access Setting

Dissertation-Open Access