Date of Award


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy



First Advisor

Dr. Chris Koronakos

Second Advisor

Dr. Frederick P. Gault

Third Advisor

Dr. Roger Ulrich

Fourth Advisor

Dr. Thomas Van Den Abell


The prevalence of depression was evaluated in 168 inpatients being treated for alcohol and other drug abuse. Patients were divided into three groups according to their pattern of substance use: alcohol only, alcohol and other drugs, and other drugs only. After two weeks of sobriety, 35% of these patients met the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Third Edition, Revised (DSM-III-R) (American Psychiatric Association (APA), 1987) criteria for one of the Depressive Disorders based upon information from a structured interview using the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia-Change Version (SADS-C) (Endicott & Spitzer, 1978). Prevalence rates did not vary by use group, sex, race, marital status, or employment status.

The nature of depression in substance abusers was examined by means of factor analyses of the responses to the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) (Beck, Ward, Mendelson, Mock, & Erbaugh, 1961) and the Mood Assessment Scale (MAS) (Yesavage et al., 1983). These data support the notion that it is theoretically appropriate to use depression inventories developed in clinical populations of primarily depressed patients in the population of alcohol and other drug abusers. The responses of this sample of alcohol and other drug abusers produced factors similar to the factors previously produced by patients with depressive disorders.

The MAS was shown to be a valid measure of depression in a population of alcohol and other drug abusers involved in residential treatment. It was superior to the BDI and the Symptom Check List (SCL-90-R) (Derogatis, Rickels, & Rock, 1976) for both sensitivity and specificity using DSM-III-R diagnosis of depressive disorders as a comparison.

The coexistence of a depressive disorder was associated with continuing depression after treatment. Most of the subjects without depressive disorders (non-DDD group) experienced little or no depression at follow-up whether they relapsed or not. The subjects with a depressive disorder (DDD group) experienced mild to moderate levels of depression even if abstinent. All of the relapsers in the DDD group were severely depressed whereas only half of the relapsers in the non-DDD group were severely depressed.

Access Setting

Dissertation-Open Access