Date of Award


Degree Name

Doctor of Education


Educational Leadership

First Advisor

Dr. Edgar A. Kelley

Second Advisor

Dr. Charles Warfield

Third Advisor

Dr. Ronald Crowell


In this study five measures of ability or achievement (I.Q., reading comprehension, vocabulary, math concepts, and math computation) for each of four grade levels (third, fourth, fifth, and sixth) were analyzed to determine whether there were significant differences for students from traditional working parent families and students from two-working-parent families. An ex post facto design was used.

Subjects were 335 third, fourth, fifth, and sixth grade students from a single public school district in the state of Michigan. These students were identified by teachers or principals as being from either a traditional or a two-working-parent family. All ability and achievement test scores were obtained from confidential school records.

One-tailed t tests were computed to compare the mean test scores of both groups at the.05 level of significance. Major findings were: (1) For school ability, there were no significant differences in academic ability at any of the four grade levels. The t-score for grade 3 was.824; the t-score for grade 4 was 1.175; the t-score for grade 5 was 1.200; and, the t-score for grade 6 was.249. (2) There were no significant differences in 13 areas of achievement at any of the four grade levels. The grade 3 t-scores were: Vocabulary 1.556, math concepts.292, and math computation.470. The grade 4 t-scores were: Reading 1.454, math concepts 1.249, and math computation.001. The grade 5 t-scores were: Reading 1.400, vocabulary.174, and math computation.373. The grade 6 t-scores were: Reading.402, vocabulary.663, math concepts.196, and math computation.132. (3) Two significant differences occurred in support of students from two-working-parent families (Reading grade 3: 1.930, and math concepts grade 5: 1.665). (4) One significant difference occurred in support of students from traditional working parent families (Vocabulary grade 4: 1.724).

A conclusion of this study is that maternal employment does not have an adverse impact on the educational outcomes of children.

Access Setting

Dissertation-Open Access