Date of Award


Degree Name

Doctor of Education


Counseling and Personnel

First Advisor

Dr. John Geisler

Second Advisor

Dr. Robert L. Betz

Third Advisor

Dr. Chris Koronakos


The main purpose of this study was to examine the validity of the Malay translated version of Self Directed Search (SDS) and the use of Holland's hexagonal model with a Malaysian college student population.

Form E of the SDS was used. The four subscales, Likes, Competencies, Occupations, and Self Rating, were modified and translated into Malay Language following back-translation procedure. The translated version was pretested using "counterbalance" design. The responses from a population of 169 Malaysian undergraduate students from Western Michigan University were analyzed. Principal factor analysis with varimax rotation was used to produce simple structure analogous to types (Realistic, Investigative, Artistic, Social, Enterprising, and Conventional). The formula suggested by Wakefield and Doughtie (1973) was employed to test the model in terms of space-distance between pairs of types. The reliability estimate of the instrument was obtained by coefficient alpha (.81).

In general, the results seemed to be consistent with the findings of other studies with regard to the following conclusions: (a) The analysis of data produced factors analogous to types, although with lesser numbers and fewer unitary factors. (b) Men and women seemed to have different factor structure. (c) Holland's hexagonal model was supported. (d) Some scales failed to split some components of the SDS.

Although it can be concluded that the study generally supported the theory (p < .01), however, discrepancies such as the uniqueness of I-E-C factor for the women's sample and the number of factors with combinations of types raised two questions. Were the discrepancies due to the cultural differences of the sample or were they due to the incompleteness of the scales? Therefore, more investigation is necessary to validate further the positive results, and the refinement of the instrument with item revisions is recommended to examine the scales.

Access Setting

Dissertation-Open Access

Included in

Counseling Commons