Date of Award


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy


Science Studies

First Advisor

Dr. Lloyd J. Schmaltz

Second Advisor

Dr. John D. Grace

Third Advisor

Dr. George G. Mallinson

Fourth Advisor

Dr. Robert H. Poel


The primary purpose of this study was to determine if the temper in prehistoric ceramics could be used to reconstruct the patterns of ceramic manufacture in portions of the Apache-Sitgreaves and Coconino National Forests, Arizona. Homogeneity of temper would suggest the use of a restricted number of temper sources indicating that ceramic manufacture occurred in a small number of villages.

A second goal was to analyze the data for diversity of temper both within and among the ceramic wares in the study. The third goal was to compare the mineralogical composition of rock units in the study area and the mineralogical component of the temper in order to determine where temper could have been obtained.

Thin sections of 246 sherds and 18 rock samples were prepared for petrographic analysis and the identification of their mineralogical content was recorded. Following ceramic identification, the sherds were grouped into 28 traditional ceramic types that are assigned to seven ceramic wares.

The homogeneity of temper allows interpretations concerning its variability within and among ceramic types and wares, and allowing suggestions for the number of manufacturing areas producing each ceramic type.

The mineralogical composition of the rocks was analyzed and compared with the mineralogical component of the temper in the ceramic types. The findings indicate that the temper sources for particular ceramic types are in the study area; other temper indicates manufacture elsewhere. Examination of the variability of temper within and among ceramic wares suggest that the Cibola White Ware ceramics were more variable than were the White Mountain Red Ware ceramics.

The findings of the study provide evidence that ceramic production took place in a restricted number of villages, and support the conclusion that a sizeable number of manufactured vessles moved along trade routes into outlying villages. The interpretation that abundance of a ceramic type at a site can be interpreted to mean local manufacture is rejected by the data.

Access Setting

Dissertation-Open Access

Included in

Anthropology Commons