Date of Award


Degree Name

Doctor of Education


Educational Leadership

First Advisor

Dr. Uldis Smidchens

Second Advisor

Dr. Ken Simon

Third Advisor

Dr. Shirley Van Hoeven


The purpose of this study was to examine differences in perceptions between various educators regarding needed competencies for the position of principal in Guam. The study was undertaken because of the relative lack of empirical data in Guam regarding competencies for education administrator positions. In addition, there appeared to be a need to examine the perceptions of others on competencies for the principalship outside of those included by Holder in 1962.

The research population consisted of 1,105 educators of the Guam school system. All the 34 principals, 16 assistant principals, and 14 administrators and 18 consultants of the central office were used for this study. In addition, a random sample of 365 teachers out of a population of 1,023 was also used. One hundred percent of the principals, assistant principals, and central office administrators provided usable responses. Eighty-three percent of the consultants and sixty-seven percent of the teachers sampled provided usable responses.

A 54-item questionnaire was developed and used in this study from the competency listings of Lipham and Hoeh (1974), those found in the literature, and those included in the present job description of the Guam principalship. Twenty-three competencies resulted from this procedure.

Responses on the ratings of the competencies by the elementary and secondary principals, elementary and secondary assistant principals, elementary and secondary teachers, and central office consultants and administrators, respectively, were compared using the dichotomy of responses above or below the median of the respective combined scores. The null hypotheses were tested by applying appropriately either the Fisher exact or the chi-square test for two and k independent samples with alpha, the probability of committing a Type I error, equal to .05.

Differences were found on the ratings of the competencies by the respective educator groups as follows: (1) The elementary and secondary principals differed in their opinions regarding the need for the competencies of implementing programs and 2 years of administrative and/or supervisory experience for the principalship. (2) The elementary and secondary teachers differed in their ratings on the need for the competencies of staff development, providing school community relations, knowledge of the principles and practices of educational technology with emphasis in curriculum and instructional areas, and ability to maintain records and prepare reports for the principal position. (3) The consultants and administrators differed in regard to how important they perceived the competency of ability to work effectively with the public and employees is to the principalship. (4) The combined responses of principals, assistant principals, teachers, and central office staff showed different responses regarding the need for the competencies of evaluating programs, organizing staff resources, and knowledge of the principles and practices of school administration for the principalship.

However, no difference was found between the perceptions of the elementary and secondary assistant principals in regard to their ratings of the competencies needed for the position of principal in Guam.

The study concluded that certain competencies are perceived quite differently by the various educator groups and may be a basis for specifying principalship competencies for the Guam school system.

Access Setting

Dissertation-Open Access