Date of Award


Degree Name

Doctor of Education


Educational Leadership

First Advisor

Dr. Harold W. Boles

Second Advisor

Dr. Gordon Johnson

Third Advisor

Dr. Richard Munsterman


The social, political, and economic development of Malawi has brought with it rising expectations among the people, especially the youth. These aspirations cause the youth to quest for better food, clothing, housing, health and education. However, in order to escape from the poverty and misery there must be greater emphasis on the preparation of the youth for gainful employment. This calls for restructuring of the present educational system to make it suited to the needs of the people in Malawi. But to develop a system geared to providing individuals with skills necessary to enhance their human expectations and economic development requires heavy financial commitments.

This study was an attempt to explore and identify the kind of educational programs that would provide individual, social and economic returns. Therefore, the study had a twofold purpose: (a) to develop and describe a possible educational model that would assist young people in acquiring job skills to enable them to earn a livelihood while at the same time aiding in the social and economic development of Malawi, and (b) to determine how the model might be implemented.

To guide the study, six objectives were established relative to the development of a vocational/technical education model. A panel of three experts was consulted as a echnique for evaluating the validity of the model which would be suitable to the social, political and economic situations in Malawi.

Data were collected through: (a) reviewing literature regarding what eight developing countries had done, through their educational systems, to train their people to increase competence and initiative and boost economic productivity, (b) visiting three Vocational Skill Centers during which time this writer talked with administrators and collected bulletins and other related materials, (c) completing internships at two Skill Centers where the investigator was involved in developing some vocational education programs, and (d) sending a questionnaire, compiled by the investigator, to which the National Research Council of Malawi responded.

The date indicated that in order for a country to achieve a higher degree of social, political and economic development, the human resources must be developed. This meant investing in educating people and training them in the technical and leader skills required to operate a modern economy. Based on the findings, the possible vocational/technical model for Malawi secondary school programs was developed and a plan for implementing the model was posited. Considerations included: potential students; learning experiences to be provided; instructional staff and supportive service personnel; the type of facilities required, with cost estimates; finance required; finance sources; political considerations and validation of the model.

Conclusions were drawn and recommendations were made to the Ministry of Education regarding: (a) approval of the proposed program; (b) the establishment of a Pilot Center; (c) formulation of an Advisory Committee; (d) selection and enrollment of the initial group of students; (e) provision of scholarships; (f) examinations; (g) periodic staff workshops; (h) dissemination of information; (i) location of vocational/technical center(s); (j) involvement of government agencies, community, business and industry representatives.

Access Setting

Dissertation-Open Access