Date of Award
Doctor of Education
Dr. Richard E. Munsterman
Dr. John Mader
Dr. Uldis Smidchens
The Purpose. The purpose of the study was to examine a community currently experiencing a double-sessions school organization. The citizens, students, graduates, and staff of the Yale School District, Yale, Michigan, were surveyed to determine their attitudes toward double sessions and their opinions on selected educational values. The data were examined to determine if there was a direct relationship between the opinions held on these selected values and agreement-disagreement with double sessions and to determine differences among participants regarding their opinions.
An additional purpose was to determine if there were any differences among eligible voters regarding their attitudes toward eliminating double sessions.
Methodology. The study was based on information supplied by a questionnaire completed by 436 random sampled participants made up of parents, voters (those without children in school), students, and teachers from a rural (grades 7-12) public secondary school with a 1100 student population. The data were analyzed using Pearson product moment method correlation coefficients and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) techniques at the .05 level of significance. A protected least squares difference post-hoc analysis on the ANOVA tests.
The questionnaire consisted of three instruments to measure: (1) selected values of education, VAL-ED, which include the degree to which respondents believe schools should emphasize student learning experiences that go beyond just preparation for employment (IMP sub-scale) and the degree to which respondents value the inclusion of student feeling, sensations, and body in the curriculum in addition to traditional subject matter (MIND sub-scale); (2) attitudes toward double sessions; (3) and demographic items. The instruments were mailed to parents, voters without children in school, and graduates. Teachers and students completed the questionnaire during school hours.
The graduate population was eventually eliminated from the study because a low percentage of graduates (33%) responded to the survey and it could not be determined if those who did reply represented a biased opinion of the group. Response rates for other populations were: parents 81%, voters 60%, students 100%, and teachers 100%.
The Pearson product moment correlations indicated that there was a direct but minimal relationship (r .09) between the degree to which respondents believed in education for itself, beyond its occupational advantage (IMP) and the degree to which they favored the elimination of double sessions. Also, there was a direct but weak relationship (r .14) between the degree to which respondents believed schools should assist in the development of the whole personality, not just the mind (MIND) and the degree to which they favored the elimination of double sessions.
The post-hoc analysis of the ANOVA results indicated the teacher sub-group registered the only significant difference of opinion among the sub-groups on the MIND educational value, favoring schools assisting in the development of the total personality, not just the mind. Whereas, the student sub-group registered the only significant difference of opinion on the IMP educational value by viewing as less important, the value of education beyond its occupational advantages.
With the exception of the teacher sub-group, the post-hoc analysis of the ANOVA tests indicated no significant difference of attitudes toward double sessions existed among the parent, voter, and student sub-groups. However, among eligible voters, test results revealed a tendency for those respondents who were 20 to 40 years of age, had lived in the community under ten years, and who had more formal education to have a more favorable attitude toward eliminating double sessions.
Harrington, Patrick Clayton, "Relationship of Educational Values and Attitudes Toward "Double Sessions" in a Rural Community" (1980). Dissertations. 2639.