Date of Award


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy



First Advisor

Dr. Stephanie Peterson

Second Advisor

Dr. Jessica Frieder

Third Advisor

Dr. Douglas Johnson

Fourth Advisor

Dr. Nancy Neef


SAFMEDS, flashcards, self-study, precision teaching


Lindsley developed Say-All-Fast-Minute-Every-Day-Shuffled, or SAFMEDS, in the late 1970’s to enhance the typical use of flashcards (Graf & Auman, 2005). The acronym was developed specifically to guide the learner’s behavior when using flashcards. A review of SAFMEDS research indicates it has been utilized with children, college students and older adults with and without disabilities. The literature also indicates the SAFMEDS procedures used are not well documented or have multiple variations limiting practitioners’ ability to know what procedure to use and when. Furthermore, future SAFMEDS research is hampered by variations in the independent variable (i.e., SAFMEDS). The purpose of this study was to evaluate a basic SAFMEDS procedure and four supplementary SAFMEDS procedures. Results of the study suggest the basic SAFMEDS procedure was not sufficient for developing fluent responding with Chinese characters or Russian words, but all of the supplementary procedures led to increases in the number of correct responses per 1-min timing. Further research evaluating differences in performance across the supplementary procedures is warranted.

Access Setting

Dissertation-Open Access