Date of Award


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy


Counselor Education and Counseling Psychology

First Advisor

Dr. Joseph R. Morris

Second Advisor

Dr. Patrick H. Munley

Third Advisor

Dr. Susan V. Piazza


Quantitative, single subject methodology, interdisciplinary research, African American, education reform, school-based mental health


While there is a dearth of longitudinal outcome research on comprehensive school counseling program impact (Carey & Dimmitt, 2006; Carey, Dimmitt, Hatch, Lapan, & Whiston, 2008; Gysbers, 2001; Whiston, 2002) on indicators of importance to school systems (Borders, 2002; Lapan, 2001), school counseling research primarily studies program components (Borders, 2002; Herr, 1979; Whiston, 2002; Whiston & Sexton, 1998) and component outcomes (Hughes & James, 2001; Schmidt, 1984, 2000; Sink, 2002). Grounded in a historical review of the school counseling field and pertinent related research, this research investigated the school counseling program impact of one kindergarten through eighth grade urban school serving a majority African American student population that was recruited based on convenient and purposeful sampling procedures. The school counseling program impact was investigated using a novel ABA reversal single subject time-series analysis of archived attendance, suspension, Michigan Educational Assessment Program (MEAP), and Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP) school district data.

This investigation found a statistically significant decrease in school-wide daily and weekly suspension percentages and a promising upward trend in MEAP reading proficiency percentages for sixth, seventh, and eighth grade students during the implemented school counseling program years. These findings are discussed based on the disproportionately higher suspensions and lower academic achievement of African American students. Limitations of this investigation are discussed and implications for future research and practice are recommended.

Access Setting

Dissertation-Open Access