Date of Award


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy


Counselor Education and Counseling Psychology

First Advisor

Dr. Mary Z. Anderson

Second Advisor

Dr. Lonnie E. Duncan

Third Advisor

Dr. Patrick H. Munley

Fourth Advisor

Dr. Delores Walcott


Men, counseling, expectations, males, psychology


In today’s society, a man upholding masculinity alone is not enough. There is a constant need to “prove” their masculinity. Men’s inability to recognize when they are experiencing stress, strain, and sickness is noted as being due to them being socialized to ignore their feelings (Wilson, n.d.). Although research that addresses the concept of help-seeking has expanded, it continues to be limited in its focus on men. In addition, not much attention has been given to counseling expectations. The purpose of the present study is to expand the current knowledge base on men and their counseling expectations. This study examined the relationship that SES, counseling stigma, ethnic identity, and counseling barriers have with males’ counseling expectations. One hundred and thirty-two males participated in this study. A canonical analysis provided support in examining the relationships between the predictor variables and outcome/criterion variables. Findings from the canonical analysis supported the proposed hypothesis. Although this study contributes to the limited research on counseling expectations, specifically the counseling expectations of men, further exploration is need.

Access Setting

Dissertation-Open Access