Date of Award
Doctor of Philosophy
Dr. James Butterfield
Dr. Jacinda M. Swanson
Dr. Mahendra S. Lawoti
Dr. Alisa M. Perkins
Pakistan, Pashtun, Baloch, social movements, comparative politics
Drawing on a Gramscian conception of the state, I argue in this study that the Pakistani state has established a religion-based hegemonic civic identity discourse intended to de-naturalize and suppress ethno-nationalist centrifugal tendencies among the marginalized ethno-national communities, including Pashtuns, Balochs and Sindhis. I compare the Pashtun and Baloch nationalist movements that aspire to secede from (or secure more autonomy within) Pakistan by confronting the state with counterhegemonic, ethno-nationalist, discourses. This study addresses the question of why Pashtun nationalists, compared to their Baloch counterparts, have failed to establish a vigorous counterhegemonic discourse that could have helped them launch a movement for autonomy or separation. I hypothesize that various factors have influenced the trajectories of the Pashtun and Baloch nationalist movements in Pakistan: the socio-economic conditions of Pashtuns and Balochs; their respective ethno-nationalist framing strategies; their exposure to the ideological apparatuses of the state; and the political opportunity structures surrounding each movement.
Khan, Dervaish, "The Struggle for Counterhegemony: Pashtun and Baloch Nationalism in Pakistan" (2018). Dissertations. 3292.