Date of Award


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy


Counselor Education and Counseling Psychology

First Advisor

Dr. Lonnie E. Duncan


The comparative experiences of first generation and non-first generation Black students at predominately White institutions were examined to gain information about the predictors and relationships between adjustment (including academic and personal-emotional) coping (4 styles), race-related stress, and racial identity development (6 levels). Results from a simultaneous multiple regression revealed a significant positive adjustment profile that included being non-first generation, low disengagement coping, problem-oriented coping, and low pre-encounter self-hatred racial identity development. The standardized coefficients for the first canonical analyses indicated significant relationships between pre-encounter self-hatred and low personal-emotional adjustment; and for the second, low disengagement coping and personal-emotional adjustment. For each of the canonical correlations, canonical variable loadings revealed additional contributing variables. These data add to the current body of knowledge and are valuable for universities, mental health professionals, and the future development of resources to assist this population of students.

Access Setting

Dissertation-Open Access