Date of Award


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy



First Advisor

Dr. Amy E. Naugle


The purpose of the proposed study was to assess the effects of implementing an in-school suspension program with a Restorative Justice component on office referrals, suspensions and grade point averages. The combination of Restorative Justice and inschool suspension as an alternative to out-of-school suspension warrants empirical evaluation. According to recent research, neither Restorative Justice nor in-school suspension alone have enough empirical evidence to support their success and continued use in schools in isolation. The positive aspects of each combined may produce a more successful alternative to suspension. A group design procedure was used to assess if significant changes in the number of office referrals, suspensions and/or grade point averages are made when the in-school suspension program with the Restorative Justice component is implemented. This program had been implemented in an urban middle school in Michigan at the request of the school principal. The purpose of this study was to compare school data on referrals, suspensions and grade point averages from a 6 month time period prior to the implementation of the program with data during the 6 months when the program was implemented. This study may provide useful information to the school and to the district regarding whether or not the program is a viable alternative to out-of-school suspension.

Access Setting

Dissertation-Open Access