Date of Award


Degree Name

Doctor of Education


Special Education and Literacy Studies

First Advisor

Dr. Susan Piazza

Second Advisor

Dr. Elizabeth Isidro

Third Advisor

Dr. Shaila Rao

Fourth Advisor

Dr. Alice Hoekstra


Reading fluency, elementary education, fluency instruction, Leveled Literacy Intervention (LLI), fluency research, multi-tiered system of supports (MTSS)


This study was warranted to thoroughly understand general and special education teachers’ perceptions of the implementation of Leveled Literacy Intervention (LLI) within Tier II and Tier III of a Multi-tiered System of Support (MTSS) while focusing on reading fluency instruction. Using a mixed methods approach, this study described the impact of LLI on student outcomes in reading fluency, as well as examined the integrity of LLI implementation within Tier II and Tier III through descriptive statistical analysis of student achievement data and a document review of intervention records. In addition, through the use of inductive thematic analysis of observations and interviews, this study explored teachers' perceptions of LLI in relation to reading fluency instruction, as their perceptions, knowledge, and decision-making impact implementation of LLI across Tier II and Tier III of a MTSS.

Access Setting

Dissertation-Open Access